Time : Three Hours
Max. Marks : 80
Notes : 1. All questions carry marks as indicated.
2. Solve Question 1 OR Questions No. 2.
3. Solve Question 3 OR Questions No. 4.
4. Solve Question 5 OR Questions No. 6.
5. Solve Question 7 OR Questions No. 8.
6. Solve Question 9 OR Questions No. 10.
7. Solve Question 11 OR Questions No. 12.
8. Due credit will be given to neatness and adequate dimensions.
9. Assume suitable data whenever necessary.
10. Illustrate your answers whenever necessary with the help of neat sketches.
1. a) Describe various Pros and cons of DBMS over file system. [07 M]
b) Consider R = (A,B,C) and Let r1 and r2 both be relations an schema R. Give the expression in both tuple relational Calculus and domain relational Calculus that equivalent to the relational algebra. [07 M]
i) πA,B (r1)
ii) σB=19 (r2)
iii) r1 ∪ r2
iv) r1 ∩ r2
2. a) What is Data Independence? What are its types? Why it is needed? [07 M]
b) Explain DBMS architecture in detail with the help of diagram. [07 M]
3. a) Construct B+ tree for the following set of key value. Assume that tree is initially empty and values are added in ascending order.
Construct B+tree for cases where number of pointers that will fit one node is as follows: [08 M]
i) Four ii) Six
b) List various file organization methods & explain various ways of organizing records in a file in brief. [07 M]
4. a) What is Dynamic Hashing? What are its advantages over static hashing? Explain the mechanism of dynamic hashing. [07 M]
b) Differentiate between B tree and B+ tree. [06 M]
5. a) List various E-R diagram notations and Explain meaning associated with each notation. [05 M]
b) What is Normalization? Explain the process in details Also explain 1NF, 2NF and 3NF with suitable example. [08 M]
6. a) What are strong entities and weak entities? Draw ER diagram illustrating the use of strong entity, weak entity, composite attribute multivalued attributes & derived attributes. [08 M]
b) What is an attributes? Explain different types of attributes. [05 M]
7. a) Describe various steps involved in query processing. Explain functioning of each step. [07 M]
b) What is heuristic optimization? Discuss the main heuristic that are applied during query optimization. [06 M]
8. a) Describe query optimization in detail. [07 M]
b) What are different equivalence rules present in transformation of relational expression? [06 M]
9. a) What is serializability? Discuss various types of serializability. [07 M]
b) Define Transaction. Explain ACID properties. [07 M]
10. a) Explain 2 Phase Locking protocol. How does it guarantee serializability? [07 M]
b) What is deadlock in DBMS? Explain with example. What are deadlock prevention strategies? [07 M]
11. a) What is Authorization? Explain the process of Authorization. [07 M]
b) Give various SQL Aggregate functions. [06 M]
12. a) Define integrity constraints. Explain different types of integrity with suitable example. [06 M]
b) Write short note on: [07 M]
i) Embedded SQL. ii) Dynamic SQL.